AQUASTAT:  This is one of the three types of geodetic lines described by Guy Underwood. He stated that it is positive in polarity and subdivides into four parallel triads arranged as two pairs. They are said to reticulate, i.e. the outside lines, at intervals, cross and recross the centre line. Where an aquastat runs on the same course as a water line, Underwood calls them “Holy Lines”.

AQUIFER:  A rock layer that contains water which may be released in appreciable amounts. The rock contains water-filled spaces, and when the spaces are connected by fissures the water is able to flow through the rock in underground streams.

AREA OF INFLUENCE:  The extent of the zone around an object that is influenced by the energy field of that object. This distance can be much greater than the extremities of the energy field related to the object.

AURA:  Another name for energy field but generally looked upon as the energy field around a living body. It is multi-layered and it reflects the well-being of the person on the physical, emotional and spiritual levels. Where illness is present in the body a hole or weakness in the aura can be dowsed adjacent to the position in the body where an illness exists.

AURAMETER:  Properly called the Cameron Aurameter, this combination dowsing tool was developed by Verne Cameron in California in the middle of the last century. It is essentially a spring loaded L rod, but it has many different uses and can act as a number of different dowsing tools. Sig Lonegren has written a short tutorial on its use for the BSD.

As its name suggests, it was initially designed to look at human auras. This tool is not as accurate as some at finding a specific point, but is excellent at defining outer perimeters of energy fields, following underground veins of primary water or curving and convoluted energetic phenomena.

BENEFICIAL ENERGY :  A type of energy that is dowsed as being of benefit. This requires further definition to determine to what it may be beneficial. Energies that are dowsed as beneficial to humans can also be subdivided to determine the part or spectrum of our being that is most affected, i.e. the physical, emotional, mental or spiritual. Energies dowsed as beneficial or detrimental can usually be verified as such by using kinesiology. Beneficial energy is also dowsed as yang energy.

BLACK LINE:  An energy line identified by the use of the colour black as a witness, and associated with the transfer to a site of energies adverse to mental, physical or spiritual well-being in humans. It is straight and can be several feet in width. It can also be dowsed as yin energy.

BLACK STREAM:  A term used by water diviners to denote an underground stream that is not considered to be potable and reacts to black on the Mager rosette. There are also black streams of energy. It is claimed that such streams give off energies that are bad for the health of anyone living directly in their course. They are generally not straight over a distance but meander in the same way as a river or underground water. It is also claimed that some black energy streams have no association with underground water. Further clarification is required on this point.

BLIND SPRING:  A vertical shaft of ascending water that does not rise to the surface of the earth but disperses through several horizontal fissures which can be at various depths. Dowsers identify blind springs as several underground streams radiating from a central point. Some of these may subdivide into smaller streams. Blind springs are found under many ancient sites and churches but are also to be found elsewhere throughout the countryside. There is an associated energy field that is unique to a blind spring as well as the water component. The Blind Spring will have a feeder stream at a greater depth. It is thought that the water is forced to rise up the vertical fissure due to a narrowing of the feeder stream.

BOVIS BIOMETER:  An instrument invented by M. Bovis in France to give measurements on a scale of 1 to 100 in regard to dowsing responses. It is mainly used in radiesthesia and other methods of healing. The biometer consists of a wood baseboard with a 100 cm rule which can be slid into the base. At the 0 end a small cup is fitted to hold a witness, if required. The pendulum is held towards the right end of the base and the rule is slid out or in until a positive response is observed by the dowser. The reading on the rule is taken as the value or rate. There are many variations of the biometer. However, as with all methods of measurement readings tend to be subjective and vary between

CANCER VERTICAL:  A term used by Cody to describe a vertically rising radiation which he thought could cause cancer. The radiation can be measured by an electroscope and other more modern instruments as well as by dowsing. More information as to the precise form that this energy takes would be an advantage to dowsers.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM:  An observable rhythm or energy movement that can be measured over a period of twenty-four hours or one day-length. However the term is also loosely used to describe any cyclical movement of energy that corresponds with the phases of the sun, moon or planets and may be more than one day-length.

COLOUR DOWSING:  – See Mager Rosette.

CONCENTRIC RINGS OR HALOES:  These are circular rings of energy which some dowsers find around standing stones, tumuli, etc. There is debate amongst dowsers whether they are real phenomena or thought forms.

CRITICAL RELATIONSHIP:  Where two or more objects are situated at specific distances apart so that their energy fields interact with each other and they behave as a single unit.

CURRY GRID:  – See Earth Grids.

DEPTHING:   A means of determining the depth of underground water through dowsing, usually either by counting using a pendulum, or by measuring the distance of sidebands – a method called ‘Bishop’s Rule’.

DETRIMENTAL ENERGY:  A type of energy that is dowsed as harmful. This requires further definition to determine to what it may be harmful as certain energies may be harmful to one species of life and be tolerated by others. Energies that are dowsed as detrimental to humans can also be subdivided to determine the part or spectrum of our being that is most affected i.e. the physical, emotional, mental or spiritual. Energies dowsed as detrimental to the physical being can usually be verified as such by using kinesiology.

DIMENSION:  A level of existence which can be experienced through the physical, mental, emotional and the spiritual. An energy can manifest in more than one dimension at a time. The energy in each dimension can have a unique set of characteristics such as wavelength, polarity, strength, form, etc.

DISTANT DOWSING / REMOTE DOWSING:  Remotely dowsing the site or person under investigation; this can be done with the use of a map, photograph or as a purely mental process through visualisation.

DIVINING:  It is sometimes taken as equivalent to dowsing but the two terms are not completely synonymous. In ancient times divination was done by various procedures that has no connection to modern dowsing procedures.

The art and practice of discovering unknown things, usually by means of a pendulum, rods etc. or acquiring information by means which do not involve the use of the five senses, is also called divination.

DOME / BLIND SPRING:  A vertical shaft of ascending water that does not rise to the surface of the earth but disperses through several horizontal streams that can be at various depths.  Dowsers identify blind springs as several (usually an uneven number) underground streams radiating from a central point.  They are found under many ancient sites and churches but are also to be found elsewhere throughout the countryside.  There is an associated energy field that is unique to a water dome or blind spring as well as the water component.

DOWN SHOOT (ENERGY):  This is where energy descends vertically into the Earth. It is usually in the form of a spiral or vortex but can also be as a pillar and occurs at some crossing points of underground water veins and grid crossing points. The spiral can rotate in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction.

DOWNSHAFT OR DOWNER (WATER):  This is where water from a horizontal subterranean watercourse descends vertical down a fissure before flowing onwards, horizontally, usually as a single vein. This is the opposite of a blind spring where the water rises. There is a unique energy field associated with a downshaft of water which can be identified through dowsing.

DOWSING:  The art of discovering the presence of energies, substances, objects or missing persons or things not apparent to the senses, usually by using rods, pendulums, etc. Dowsing can also be carried out without the use of tools. This is called deviceless dowsing. Dowsing is generally divided into three categories: physical or site dowsing, map or distance dowsing and information dowsing. The word “dowsing” derives from medieval German (da sein) which means ‘it is there’; its first recorded use was by John Lock in 1692. It is sometimes taken as equivalent to divining, but the two terms are not completely synonymous.  In the U.S.A. dowsing for water is known as “water witching” but most dowsers are now trying to get away from using this term.

EARTH ENERGY:  A naturally occurring field of subtle energy relating to or emanating from the earth as a whole.

EARTH ENERGIES:  Different from the above in that they include all energies that can be dowsed on the surface of the earth. The source of these energies may be outside the earth or in specific parts of the earth, e.g. solar, lunar, planetary and other cosmic sources as well as topographical features on earth.

EARTH GRIDS:  A regular pattern of crossing energy lines which surround the earth. Some of these energies alone or in combination with other energies, it is thought, may cause illness. Several different grids have been dowsed, each with their own characteristics. The best known are the Hartmann (N/S, E/W) and Curry (diagonal) grids. R. Schneider discovered two others called the 3rd and 4th (diagonal) grids. The distance between lines in a specific grid form appears to vary according to latitude and form a rectangle rather than a square. Each grid form has a different orientation.

The Hartmann grid was named after Dr Hartmann who it is thought was the first to observe earth grids. It is a world wide grid in accordance with the earth’s magnetic field, i.e. approximately N/S, E/W. There are considerable variations in the grid spacing dependent on local conditions and the degree of latitude. In Greenland a spacing of 1.05m x 1.20m is found. In England the average spacing is 1.60m x 1.68m while in the Canary Islands it is 2.00m x 2.50m. The straightness of the grid lines can be affected by high voltage power lines and radio stations.

The Curry grid was named after the German doctor Dr Manfred Curry who was the founder of the Bioclimatic Institute in Bavaria. It is thought to be more biologically damaging than the Hartmann, especially the double lines that occur at approximately every 50 metres. The distance of the grid line spacings vary according to location and can vary from 2.5 x 3.5 m. In England they are 3m x 3 m.

EARTH SPIRIT / SPIRIT OF PLACE / GENIUS LOCII:  A manifestation found in a particular place, often a natural setting, such as a grove of trees or a stone circle. It is considered to be the guardian or controlling spirit of that location and it is recommended that proper respect be given to it when visiting the area and its permission gained before entering the site.

ENERGY (OR PRANA) CHARACTERISTICS:  A means of differentiating between dowsable energies in an attempt to identify them more accurately. The following characteristics listed are some of the divisions that can be made. Wavelength, frequency, colour, strength (a scale of 1-10 or other appropriate scales may be used ), dimension, time frame, origin, source, polarity, type, negative, positive, yin, yang, beneficial, detrimental, etc.

ENERGY DOME:  A discernible area of energy in the shape of a sphere, half of which is above the surface of the ground and is to be found above some conjunctions of underground water.  Quite often a circle of energy as dowsed on the surface of the ground, when dowsed on its vertical plane, will be found to form a dome.

ENERGY FIELD:  An area of energy around an object which is specific to that object and being transmitted by it. This energy can be detected by dowsing or at certain frequencies by instruments. Another term for energy field is “aura” although this is generally associated with the human energy field.

ENERGY GRIDS:  A series of crossing parallel lines that can be found as a component of the energy field of all objects. The ends of these lines are joined together so that energy can flow from one section of the grid to the other. Each grid type has different spacings and number of lines and the orientation of the lines are different. Each line is part positive and part negative in nature. The diagram at the right shows one typical grid type in two dimensional form. However energy grids display themselves three dimensionally and therefore cubic in form. (First observed by W. A. Gawn.)

ENERGY LEYS:  Lines of dowsable energy which generally run straight, are 6-8 feet wide at their central core, and often have further bands or edges to either side. Influenced both in width and strength by lunar and solar cycles. They are often found at what are called sacred sites. Whilst energy leys are considered to be natural energy phenomena it is also thought that they can be created by the formation of structures and in some cases have been observed to appear after a structure is built and are drawn to the site as the result of human activity of a spiritual nature.

ENERGY LINE:  The direction energy takes when moving. It may be straight or curved, in several dimensions and be composed of one or more different types of energies, i.e. negative, positive or neutral. Energy lines can be found at standing stones and ancient sites but are a general feature in all energy fields.

ENERGY SPRING OR SHAFT:  A place where a shaft of energy is dowsed as rising vertically from the surface of the earth. This may have no association with underground water and is not to be confused with a blind spring. Generally this energy rises in the form of a vortex where the two dimensional plan view is in the form of a spiral; but it sometimes manifests as a helical cylinder of constant diameter, where the plan view appears as a circle.

ENERGY SOURCE:  The object creating the energy field within which the particular energy is found. This could be a tree, a mountain, a river, a stone or any other feature on the earth, or the earth as a whole. If the energy is of cosmic origin then the source would be external to the earth.

There is a line of opinion that it is the energy field that manifests the physical object and not the other way around.

ENTITY:  The existence of an energy form generally believed to be the result of a trapped spirit awaiting release to the spiritual realm. They can be attracted to certain humans and cause distress and ill health.

ESP:  Extra Sensory Perception.

EQUINOX:  The date in March or September when night equals day in length.

FENG SHUI:  Literally means “wind and water” and is a form of geomancy used by the Chinese that balances earth energies with human energies. It is said to place people between heaven and earth. It is used to determine the siting of dwellings and graves and regulates the flow of ch’i.

FLOW DIRECTION:  The direction of movement of energy along a dowsable energy line.

FORCE OF ATTRACTION:  An attractive force similar to, but different from, gravity that is within all matter and radiates from a hub in the form of lines.

GENIUS LOCII:  – see Earth Spirit,

GEODETIC LINE:  Guy Underwood in his book ‘The Pattern of the Past’ coined the term “geodetic line” to embrace three different types of line which, he states, form a complex network on the earth’s surface. He named the types water lines, aquastats and track lines, and reported that each consisted of groups of three parallel lines which he named triads.

According to Underwood this is specific to that object and being transmitted by it.  This energy can be detected by dowsing or at certain frequencies by instruments.  Another term for geodetic lines converge at blind springs but are not the same as energy leys for they do not always run straight, but may meander, loop or spiral.

GEOLOGICAL FAULT:  Major fractures in the rock structure of the earth’s surface that creates stress and, when relieved, cause earthquakes.  These faults emit energies that are generally considered by dowsers to be detrimental to most forms of life.

GEOMANCY:  The art of placing structures on the landscape so that the Earth Energies enhance their intended use and so that the structure itself is in harmony with the earth. Spiritual ecology.

GEOPATHIC STRESS:  It is an unfavourable reaction of the biological system as the result of exposure to radiations from the earth that would be dowsed as detrimental.

GOLDEN MEAN:  The basic ancient sacred geometric ratio of 1:1.618. The Golden Mean is often found in nature and has been utilised extensively in the construction of early sacred and religious sites. The square root of the Golden Mean, 1.272, has also widely been used in design and construction. A building constructed incorporating the Golden Mean in its design is unlikely to contain detrimental energy.

GEODIC FAULTS:  Cavities in igneous rocks which are partially filled with minerals in the shape of well formed crystals. These can emit unique forms of energy that can have various effects on the biological system, beneficial and detrimental.

GEOGLYPH:  A picture, diagram or shape found in the energy field by dowsing. These are formed by a single convoluted line of subtle earth energy. Some more complicated forms that can be observed are similar to those found in rock art and landscape figures throughout the world and have also been termed as archetypal images.

GEOPATHIC ZONE:  An area of the earth’s surface that emits energy that is detrimental in nature and likely to cause geopathic stress in any life form exposed to it.

HARD TARGET DOWSING:  Dowsing for verifiable, tangible, targets.

INFORMATION DOWSING:  Where dowsing is used for gathering information about the subject under study, e.g. the depth or quantity of an underground flow of water.

INTENSITY:  A term often used by dowsers and healers to denote the relative effect of an energy on an object or living system, usually in arbitrary terms. Healers often feel the intensity, and dowsers measure it using various scales such as 1-100. A well-known instrument for measuring this is the Bovis biometer.

KINESIOLOGY:  A form of muscle resistance testing which can be used to identify whether different types of energy are detrimental or beneficial to us. One of its uses is to detect allergies and the health of the human body.

LEY:  A significant alignment of sacred and related secular sites across a landscape, generally horizontally visible.  The minimum number of aligned sites to qualify as a ley is five.  The term was first used by Alfred Watkins in 1921 when he first observed this occurrence.  This is not a dowsing term and should not be used as such.  If a Ley has an associated dowsable line of energy it should be described as an Energy Ley.

LEY LINE:  The term used by many British dowsers to describe an energy ley, a straight line of energy that links ancient sites. It is easily confused with the term ley which is a purely visual alignment and therefore its use is not recommended by dowsers.

LIFE FORCE:  Can be used to describe the energy within a field around an object, e.g. earth energy is the life force of the earth. The human aura is the life force of the human. It is considered that the life force which manifests itself around an object comes from a greater source.

LONG PENDULUM:  A pendulum of which the cord is adjusted in length until a response is felt. The length of the cord at which the pendulum responded could identify every substance. Sub-classifications are defined by counting the number of gyrations or oscillations. However, the length, or rate, relating to each substance has been found to be unique to each dowser. (First used by T. Lethbridge)

MAGER ROSETTE:  A disc divided into eight coloured segments. The colours of the segments, going clockwise, are black, white, purple, blue, green, yellow, red, and grey. It is used in energy dowsing to identify differences in energy types so that the dowser can distinguish more accurately between one energy line and another.

MANIFESTATION:  A dowsable symmetrical pattern found at the crossing point of two significant earth energy lines. (First mentioned by H. Miller)

MAP DOWSING:  A method of dowsing using a map, or drawing, instead of or before visiting the site. This can be done using a pendulum in one hand whilst pointing at the map, or drawing, with a pencil in the other hand. When the target is found the pendulum will swing in the affirmative. However, many other techniques are used successfully. Map dowsing is done prior to a site visit and will reduce the time spent on site.

MEASUREMENT:  Any method by which a rule or calibrated instrument on a scale of 1- 100 is used to determine the quality, rate or vibration of an object. It can be also done by counting in whatever measurement is most suitable until a positive dowsing response is felt. In many applications measurement will greatly assist the dowser.

NEGATIVE:  A term used to indicate energy of a specific type, i.e. opposite to positive. This use of the word negative does not necessarily indicate any similarity in earth energies to the behaviour of electricity or magnetism. Whilst that is so it may be that some energies that are dowsed have electrical and/or magnetic components. Lunar energy is thought to be negative as is yin energy. Some negative energy is detrimental to various forms of life.

NODE:  A node is found at the intersection of two or more energy lines giving a highly charged point of energy.  Seven nodes are to be found on most ancient standing stones.  Five are above ground level and two are on the section of the stone below ground level.  They are likened to the seven chakras of the human body.  Nodes can be found at many places other than standing stones.

NOXIOUS ENERGY:  A type of energy that may be harmful to humans or some other species of life or vegetation.  This is generally found in association with underground water and at the crossing points of some types of energy lines.  It is considered that noxious energy will cause geopathic stress in humans and most animals and affect the growth of trees etc.  Other forms of life; ants, hornets, cats etc. seem to

appear to tolerate and continue to thrive in the presence of noxious energy.

OVERGROUNDS:  Horizontal sinuous waves observed by David Cowan which he states are emitted from standing stones, energy streams from quarries and radial lines from radar stations, etc. At source they may be unhealthy or healthy, as far as humans are concerned. They have been likened to invisible magnetic curtains, and the waves can be very close together, sometimes too close to be measured. All of the waves or overgrounds can easily be identified as they run in regimented, parallel streams, unlike subterranean fissures, for instance, which wander around in a haphazard fashion.

PARALLELS (OR SIDEBANDS):  A term used by Underwood to describe parallel lines that run on either side of the centre of a geodetic line. He also called these secondary lines.

PETRON:  A unit of charge of a stone or other object as defined by J. Fidler. It is the ratio between the standard swing for a particular rate and the observed swing. The method of computing this ratio is complex and is therefore dubious as to its usefulness.

PIEZOELECTRICITY:  The appearance of a positive electric charge on one side of certain non-conductive crystals and negative charge on the opposite side when the crystals are subjected to mechanical pressure.

(Example: In a dark room quartz crystals will be seen to glow when rubbed together.)

PLANETARY GRID:  A regular pattern of crossing energy lines detectable on the Earth’s surface, similar to Earth Grids, but relating to other planets. Grid lines are much farther apart than those of Earth Grids. Grids of all the planets as far as Saturn have been detected.  

POSITIVE:  A term used to indicate energy of a specific type, i.e. opposite to negative.  This use of the word positive does not necessarily indicate any similarity in earth energies to the behaviour of electricity or magnetism.  Whilst that is so, it may be that some energies that are dowsed have electrical and/or magnetic components.  Solar energy is thought to be positive, as is yang energy. Some positive energy can be beneficial to various forms of life.

POTABLE: Used to describe water of good drinking quality.  This can be assessed by dowsing on a scale of 1-10.    Some water dowsers use a Mager Rosette to assess quality.

POWER CENTER:  A place where there is an intensity of beneficial energy and a meeting point of yang and yin earth energies.  Power centres are associated with blind springs or domes that have at least one energy ley crossing them and are found at most ancient sacred sites.  However they can also be found elsewhere.  Power centres are generally considered to be places suitable for spiritual enlightenment and healing.  Dowsers using a sleeved L-rod have noted that when directly over a power centre the rod will rotate through 360 degrees.

POLARITY:  Polarity is used to indicate opposites such as positive and negative, male and female. The relationship between polarity and the dowsing response is not universal, but can be identified by a different action such as a rod turning up or down or a pendulum rotating clockwise or anticlockwise.

POLARISATION:   Polarisation is the preferred direction of light, radio and earth energy waves. All have oscillating and overlapping electric and magnetic fields which travel in planes perpendicular to each other. There can be horizontal, vertical, circular and elliptical polarisation.

PRANA:  It is the life force, ch’i or spirit that permeates all matter. The healing energy released through yoga and other means is known as prana. This term is generally used by geomancers and feng shui practitioners.

PRANAYAMA:  The method of controlling prana in the body is called pranayama. It is a system of breathing techniques and must be supervised by a teacher. When properly trained the prana can be directed to specific internal organs.

PRIMARY WATER:  Primary water is formed inside the earth, as opposed to surface water that is formed in the atmosphere as rain, snow, etc. The primary water theory says that steam under great pressure, deep in the earth, is forced upwards, condensing as it gets closer to the surface. This occurs in deep faults and fractures; where these are, vertical blind springs or domes are formed. At places where primary water is found the energy will be predominately yin or negative in nature.

PSIONICS or PSIONIC MEDICINE:  A term used to describe a method of diagnosis and treatment, coined by Dr. George Laurence. In its practice, diagnosis is performed by swinging a pendulum over printed charts. The appropriate treatment is discovered by means of witnesses (a hair or sample of some kind

from the patient) and is administered by using homeopathic remedies to cleanse the body of toxic imbalances and also miasma (putrid matter). It is similar in many ways to the practice of radionics or radiesthesia.

RADIAL LINES:  A series of energy lines radiating out from a source point. These lines terminate some distance from the source point, the larger the source the greater length of the lines. They usually terminate in a spiral and are not of equal length or equal distance apart. They can be of different polarities, i.e. negative, positive or neutral.

RADIESTHESIA:  Derived from the French word “radiesthésie” coined by the Abbé Bouly. The term is used interchangeably with dowsing. It derives from roots meaning “radiation” and “perception”. Radiästhesie is the corresponding German word. In English radiesthesia is most commonly used for medical applications.

RADIONICS:  Originally a method of divining introduced by Albert Abrams for the treatment of disease and developed further by Ruth Drown and G. de la Warr. It employs a system of numerical codes which in diagnosis are read from, and for treatment are sent on, a series of engraved dials mounted on a “Black Box”. The original box contained incomplete electrical circuits connected to the metal backing of a rubber “stick pad” whose suddenly increased friction to a stroking finger was used to detect the dowsing response.

RATE:  A number that is characteristic of some constituent of the sought object, and which enables a dowser to distinguish it from intervening and surrounding objects containing different materials.

By concentrating on the corresponding rate a dowser looking for water avoids being confused by metal objects, and one seeking a lost gold ring is not distracted by an iron pipe. By some the rate is associated with the rate or periodicity of the linking vibration.

A dowser’s ability to distinguish his target’s rate among others present has been explained by analogy with the physical phenomenon of resonance, which is used in tuning a radio receiver. It can be looked upon as the energy signature. There are no generally agreed rates for different substances; each dowser has to discover or can chose his or her own table of rates.

REMANANCE:  The imprint of energy that remains long after an object has been moved.

REVERSAL POINT:  A location on the earth’s surface where if an object is placed it will cause a reversal of the earthing of detrimental energy and allow it to invade our living environment. This can occur naturally due to the topography of the earth or through casual or intentional actions by humans.

SECONDARY WATER:  This is water that forms the water table of the earth. It is derived from rain water and other forms of condensation at the surface of the earth. See also Primary Water.

SERPENT LINE:  Lines of energy found on the surface of the earth by dowsers, and are unlike energy leys in that they do not run straight. They can be of any length from a few feet to many miles. The term was coined by Hamish Miller and Paul Broadhurst. The Michael and Mary lines which cross England from Cornwall to the East coast of Norfolk are described in their book “The Sun and the Serpent”, and the Apollo and Athena lines that cross Europe are described in their book “The Dance of The Dragon”.

SHORT PENDULUM:  The pendulum used by most dowsers. It usually has a cord of about 15-20 centimetres long. It is used to reply to specific questions posed by the dowser, either by oscillating or gyrating clockwise or anticlockwise. The interpretation of the response varies with individual dowsers. The form of the question asked has to be chosen with great care, or an ambiguous reply may be received.

SIDEBANDS:  Dowsable lines that are found parallel to and some distance away from a main energy line or underground stream of water. This term is interchangeable with parallels (Underwood).

SITE DOWSING:  Dowsing on the expected or desired site for the object or information sought: also called survey dowsing or on site dowsing.

SOLSTICE:  The name given to the longest day of the year occurring in June and the shortest day of the year occurring in December.

SPIRALS:  These may be clockwise or anticlockwise in direction of flow. They are formed by a line spiralling either in towards or out from a point. There can be differing numbers of coils but they are generally of uneven number, the most common being seven. Close examination may show that a spiral is the plan view of an energy cone or vortex. Spirals are often connected to each other by gently curving energy lines.

SPIRIT OF PLACE:   – see Earth Spirit

SPRINGS:  Springs are the point where water, primary or secondary, naturally wells out of the ground. The water from some springs is considered to be of benefit and assist in healing. Others due to their location and quality of water are called holy wells.

STANDING WAVE:  Sometimes called stationary wave. Produced by the combination of two other waves moving in opposite directions, each having the same amplitude and frequency.

STRENGTH:  Energy strength can be determined by using a graduated scale or any other form of measurement when dowsing.

SURVEY DOWSING:  Where dowsing is carried out on site and the position of the responses recorded on a drawing or map. Not to be confused with map dowsing, when the dowsing is done away from the site.

TECHNICAL ENERGY:  Energy generated by humans through mechanical means.

TELLURIC ENERGY:  Another name for earth energy.

THOUGHT FORM:  A dowsable, though invisible, form created by the mind that can get in the way of accurate dowsing.

TOROID:  The form taken when a spiralling line rotates in a closed curve lying in its plane. Colloquially known as a ‘Donut’ in the U.S.

TOROIDAL ENERGY:  Energy that moves in the form of a toroid. This can often be found at the commencement and termination points of a vertical pillar or vortex of energy. Often found at ancient sites, particularly henges.

TRACK LINE:  A term used by Underwood and described as a geodetic line positive in polarity which subdivides into two parallel triads. The usual width varies between twelve and twenty-four inches. He claimed that they marked the position of old roads and that animals make use of them.

TRIAD:  A term introduced by Underwood to denote the form of geodetic lines. Thus, each main line is made up of three minor lines, which together form a triad. The lines forming the triad are only a few inches apart. Triads then combine in certain groups to become aquastats, water lines or track lines.

VIRGIN WATER:  – See Primary Water.

VORTEX:  The form that energy can take when either ascending or descending vertically. Usually found in groups of up to seven terminating in a toroid, joined either point to point or base to base. In some cases at these junctions the flow of the energy can change from clockwise to anticlockwise or vice-versa. Change in polarity from negative to positive can also occur. Vortices are a feature where energy lines intersect.

WATER DOME:  Analogous to a dome or blind spring, a term used mainly in the U.S.A.

WATER LINE:  A particular type of geodetic line described by Underwood and thought by him to indicate a flow of underground water. Except that water lines do not run in straight lines, or above ground, they have similar dowsing characteristics to energy leys, i.e. a central triad with parallel triads at some distance on either side.

WAVELENGTH:  The characteristics of an energy, indicating its rate of vibration. The wavelength is measured as one complete oscillation of the wave.

WITNESS:  A sample of the substance being sought.

YIN:  A term used by practitioners of Feng Shui and although not exactly similar is used by western dowsers as an alternative term for negative energy. Yin energy is considered to be feminine and receptive.

YANG:  A term used by practitioners of Feng Shui and although not exactly similar is used by western dowsers as an alternative term for positive energy. Yang energy is considered to be masculine and active.

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