Dawsons Dowsing Tales

There are many different methods of Dowsing for water around the world with regional & individual preferences.  Often the very experienced dowsers just hit the field running, they swing their Rods and march over to the largest Aquifer in the field and start interrogating its properties, Job Done!  making it almost impossible to work out their methodology and how they achieved their results.

Locating deep / desert waters and especially in the Granite regions are for advanced water diviners but all dowsers start ‘Shallow’, tuning their affinity to potable waters.

My Methodology for Water Dowsing:

I prefer my ‘Gruyere Cheese’ method, slow and steady and highly repeatable – It’s an easy way to start dowsing and individuals can improve / expand on it later.    Please read on:

Local Knowledge & Geology Reports (British Geological Surveys),  plus recording exactly what the Landowner requires is most important before starting any dowsing and a written permissions if possible.

  • Boundaries:  Old, Present + Future Building Plans.  Google Earth look for Parch Marks.
  • Old Buildings, Electrics, Water Pipelines, Sewers, Drains, Septic Tanks & Animal Pits.
  • History of nearby houses and their water supplies + history of floods.
  • Provenance:  Where’s the waters coming from, going to, if known.
  • Quantity of waters required  = Size of downhole pump + power & water storage.

The more information gained before dowsing the better, if you can get a Geological Map of the area even better as this will help locate a good & steady water supply. If the water below is ‘Confined or Restricted’ this could become a serious problem for the landowner right in the middle of a drought period.

Upto 90% of this Project will be Homework, finding out as much information about the local area as possible, drive around the area & walk the fields, nature may give you an answer before even getting your rods out + Google Earth Maps going back to 1945.

Most of the Land in the UK will have water below, think of a Gruyere Cheese / Bath Sponge, lots of different sized holes.  Now if we can find an area where a lot of the larger holes (‘Veins’) meet up then this will be an area with a far greater water supply.  Down in Cornwall and parts of Scotland the deep granite rocks impede water flow almost to a halt, they sometime contain areas of water (‘Lenses’) but being so confined their recovery rates are very poor. So hopefully we’re in ‘Middle England’ and standing on a huge Gruyere Cheese we just need to find the largest veins near the surface and find where they all meet up.

‘As Above So Below’: Yes we’ll only be dowsing for the near surface Veins as there could be hundreds layered below criss-crossing everywhere.  These larger Veins usually indicate a better layer of water below and once we’ve located the central point, the Aquifer, we can ask direct  questions reference the quantities and flowrates available at depth.

THE DOWSING DAY:

On the day arrive at the field well prepared, a good chair and foldaway table, good walking boots and plenty of sandwiches & coffee, make yourself comfortable and ready to enjoy the day, turn off the radio

and telephone and make sure Mutley the dog’s happy and secured. Be prepared to take hourly breaks where you can close your eyes for 10 minutes and relax.

Orientate yourself with the field, North South East West, and prepare yourself for dowsing.  Firstly walk across the field dowsing for the large Veins of water we talked about earlier. You may come across a dozen Veins in a large field, so you’ll need a method of relocating and recording them.  Often it’s good to have a ‘Quiet friend’ walking alongside you, Flagging the Veins and recording their properties. (We’re only searching for the near surface Veins).

  • The width of the Vein.  (Flag their centres only  – ‘Quick Job’ 5 -6 Flags only).
  • Direction of Flow, you can lean the Flags with this direction, good visual aid later on.
  • The Flow rate either in gallons / litre per minute. (Bishop’s Rule, counting slowly)
  • Water Potable:  Think ‘Sweet Water  / Safe Water’. Lesser standards maybe acceptable for the farm animals, but try locating Potable waters where possible.
  • PH Values:  Less than PH7 = Acid.  PH7 = Neutral – Above PH7 becoming Alkaline.
  • Depths of the Vein, Top & Bottom.  (Ask if greatly reduced in mid’ summer).
  • Von Pohl Reading:  Water is a living spiritual entity and reacts to negative forces.



Derek Woodhead using a measuring wheel for the Bishop’s Rule – measuring the Horizontal Distance

The Bishop’s Rule:

Most times people will just count slowly until their Rods or Crystals indicate a strong response, counting for the Top of the Vein and the Bottom of the Vein.  If greater accuracy is required or you are asking a much more ‘Weighty’ question like, “At what depth will the Optimum Flow Rates be for this Aquifer “? Then pacing out from the Flag / Centre Point,  away at 90 degrees and measuring the distance where your Rods indicate will give you an accurate distance.

Hopefully after Flagging out the larger Veins in the Field you’ll see a couple merging together and this could indicate a healthy Aquifer.  If there’s no Veins merging this is not a problem go to the strongest Vein and walk down its length Dowsing for a central point, where other Veins come in.  You’ll need to Flag out these new Veins, recording their Widths, Directions, Flowrates & Depths.

Above is an actual Flagged Out Aquifer with four Veins passing through a Central Point.  The Dark-Blue line is the strongest Vein by far and came directly from another larger Aquifer in the field, where the two people are standing.  Here Local Knowledge comes into play, this Aquifer though the smaller of the two found may have much better access for the Drillers and less pipework would be required for it to be installed. Giving the Client a second option is always helpful.

THE AQUIFER:

We’ve only been following the near surface Veins and the four Veins in the photo above that cross already surpass the water requirements requested by the landowner so hopefully this will be a healthy & productive Aquifer below.  

The Well will be cemented in the ground for the first 6 – 10 metres, this prevents surface contaminants entering the structure below. So after a well-deserved break / rest period, we now need to Dowse the Aquifer for all its properties + Bottom depth and most importantly the Optimum depth for recovering its waters to surface.  This is where the Bishop’s Rule, measuring out the horizontal distances comes in handy.

Optimum Flowrates should cover the whole year and you can record them in stages, 50-100 feet,  100-150 feet & 150-200 feet. Most times especially in the UK this should be sufficient, two main factors would have been established with the landowner before dowsing.  Less than 20 tonnes of water recovered every 24hours, per Well, does not require an annual license (£900+), and being shallow only requires a Single Phase (Domestic 240 volts electric supply) downhole water pump.

RECORDING THE DOWSING DAY:

Lots of photographs and hopefully mostly facing North, with the sun behind you this will help describing the Dowsing Project later on.  The Veins can easily be named, 1,2,3, A,B, C, starting at the mostly Northerly, please record them in a clockwise direction, this will make your project highly repeatable.  Last but not least an accurate GPS location taken over the Centre Point, most people have I ‘phones these days, if you turn the Compass App’ on there’s a Lat-Longtitude readout at the bottom of the screen. Record this and it can be converted later on.

DOWSING PROJECT WRITTEN UP:

The best way to write up this Project is to write it chronologically and  ‘start 10 miles away’……..

‘Large Map,  Small Map, Photo-Drawing of Field,  Veins information, Aquifer information & Summary’.

Best of Luck everyone, here’s a simple Client’s Report Format below that summarises the dowsing day’s findings,  but above all else don’t forget dozens of photographs please as they’re invaluable later on.

Local Brief:   ‘Locate an Aquifer in Paddock 5.  That can provide > 20 tonnes per day’ Name / Short History of Farm:Agriculture  / Livestock + Explain the  need for extra water supplies:Name of Landowner:Date & Timings:Dowsers Names: Other Relevant Information’s: Establish Unit of Measurements:  Metric / Imperial / Cubits etc..
Orientation:OS Map:  TL. 640123 – 66123                  Elevation 20 metres + any Landmarks especially any that will appear in the photographs.
Average Quantity – WatersSummertime:    50 tonnes per dayWintertime:    80 tonnes per day
‘First 20 – 30 feet will be cemented in to prevent surface contaminants entering the structure below’.
Ave: Water Resting LevelsSummertime:    20 – 30 feetWintertime:    10 – 15 feet
Optimum Extraction DepthSummertime:    40 – 50 feetWintertime:    40 – 50 feet
Maximum Water Extraction Rates(60% of the Sustainable Yeild)Summertime:  1.2 tonnes per hourWintertime:    2 tonnes per hour
Potable – All year YesPH  LevelsPH. 7.1
Optimum Depth  / Lpm.60 Feet   / 20 Lpm.   = 30 Tonnes per day Available.
SummaryChronological History of Project + Results + Look Forwards
Author+ Where can this Report be located.
      

Extra Notes & Recommendations:

1. Water Provenance:  Find where most waters for local landowners to be coming from.  Higher ground less risk of contaminants from the land.

2. <20 Tonnes per day – No Water Extraction Licence required.  Mains Water to the Kitchen’s cold water tap must remain online at all time.

3.           Off-Peak electricity not applicable here – Large Water holding tanks not being installed.

4. Domestic Electricity supply, 240 volts x 3kw. Within 50 metres (including depth of well).  Sufficient for a single phase downhole pump.

5. If Septic Tanks are installed  the borehole has to be sited 100 feet away, preferably upstream / higher ground.

6.           All domestic soaps and detergents should be Bio Products to prevent Septic Tank Bio-Digest process being arrested.

7.           The first 20 feet of the Well should be cemented in & standing proud to prevent surface contaminates entering the Aquifer/ Sump area.

8. Water Testing Certificate:  Potable Waters testing required annually.    Domestic Test Kits should be used regularly + recorded.  


The Drilling company could also install a pressure vessel, this would need to be ‘Hard-plumbed & wired’ into the main building and require a concrete hard-standing and water tight room like a garage.  Waters for domestic use need to be three stage filtered down to 25 microns and the whole system to be cleaned / backwashed on a weekly basis. Water softeners, UV lights / Chemical inhibitors may need to be fitted.
Pressure Vessels or Pressure Tanks are mainly used in conjunction with pressure boosting sets. Their ability to hold water at pressure prevents the need for the pump to be switched on constantly during the day for quick, short periods at a time.
For example, if someone were to wash their hands, water would initially come from that stored inside the pressure tank, if the tap was then closed, the pressure vessel would automatically refill from the mains pressure without the need for the pump. The pump would only need to kick in once the pressurised water from the tank has been used ie. if you were to fill a bath or use the shower.

Field Dowsing Report:

Orientation:OS Map:                      Elevation metres:                                                                    + any Landmarks that will appear in the photographs.
Local Brief:    Location:                     Date & Timings:       Dowsers Names:                             Unit of Measurements: Metric / Imperial.

Flags Colours + Clock Positions:  North   = 12 O/c.  

Direction Water Flow:

Width of  Water-Veins:

Depth of  Water-Veins:
Ave: Quantity – Waters:‘Summer & Winter’    /    lpm./       lpm./       lpm./       lpm./       lpm./       lpm.

Potable  / PH Levels:

Waters – Provenance:

Von Pohl Reading: / 16 / 16 / 16 / 16 / 16 / 16

Ave.’ Width of Aquifer:Max’. Depth of Aquifer:

Ave’. Water Resting Levels:SummertimeAve’. Water Resting Levels:Wintertime

Safe Extraction Depth:Non Potable Waters:Safe Extraction Depth:Potable Waters:

Maximum Safe Water Extraction:(60% of the Sustainable Yield) Summertime – Tonnes per 24 HoursWintertime – Tonnes per 24 hours
PotableNon PotablePotableNon Potable

Today’s Dowsing project at Waveney Lodge was to locate an old well that may have been first dug in the 15c.  The owner Mr. Hugh Taylor indicated that the waters from this well would only be used for back filling the 600m3 pond to the South of the property which was losing water during the summer months.  Google Earth Maps clearly showed a circular mark in the lawn area and the dowsers verified that this was the original well location, and still remains the best all year round shallow Aquifer for Non Potable waters sufficient for back filling the pond.

Photograph above looking Northwards  / 12 o/c position: (‘Yellow Star’ = 3 metres East of Tree = Centre of Well)Red Flags show the outer perimeter / location of the old well.   Flagged on the lawn are four Veins of water entering the Aquifer.  Blue Flags 12o/c.   White Flags 2 o/c. Blue & White Flags 9 o/c.   Red & Blue Flags 10 o/c . position.Yellow Flags running West to East (left to right), show the ‘Grey Water’ flowline from the property’s septic tank running to a soakaway ditch to the East.  Lawn indicates no leaks / seeps from this flowline.Older outfall line found just to North of Yellow Flags could indicate previous ablution block – Eastside lawn.

Local Brief:    Date & Timings:      29th. April 2016                     Dowsers Names: Derek Woodhead,   Sue Pine  + Ann & Steve Dawson.

Orientation:Well Location:      OS Map: 134 TM.  43384-93731          Elevation metres: 21 metres  above sea level.

Vein #  / Flag Colours:1.    /     Blue2.   / White3.   /   White+ Blue4.    / Red + Blue

Flags – Clock Positions:North   = 12 O/c.  12  O/c.2  O/c.9  O/c.10  O/c.

Direction Water Flow:180  degrees225  degrees090  degrees140  degrees

                                                                Green = Waters Entering Aquifer / Red= Waters Exiting the Central Aquifer:

Width of  Water-Veins:1  foot1  foot4  feet3  feet

Depth of  Water-Veins:18/26  feet17/25  feet17/26  feet18/26  feet

Ave: Quantity – Waters:‘Summer & Winter’6  / 10 lpm.3  / 6 lpm.12  / 20 lpm.13  / 20 lpm.‘Summer’49 Tonnes per day‘Winter’80 Tonnes per day

Potable  / PH Levels:Yes  / 7.1Yes  / 7.1No  / 7.2No  / 7.3At these shallow Depths the Waters appear Contaminated / Non Potable

Waters – Provenance:N/K.N/K.Direction of Elms Farm

Von Pohl Reading:4 / 164 / 166 / 166 / 16Grey Waters from Septic Tank over-running this location.

Ave.’ Width of Aquifer:10  feetMax’. Depth of Aquifer:55  feet

Ave’. Water Resting Levels:Summertime18  feetAve’. Water Resting Levels:Wintertime14  feet

Safe Extraction Depth:Non Potable Waters = 30 – 40  feet Safe Extraction Depth:Potable Waters  = N/A.

Maximum Safe Water Extraction:        (60% of the Sustainable Yield)Summertime1 tonnes per hour  / Non PotableWintertime 2 tonnes per hour  / Non Potable

Notes & Recommendations:

  • Water Provenance – Veins ‘3 & 4’ coming in from the West:  These waters are coming from the direction of Elms Farm and  appear to have picked up a few contaminants from the land – Presently Non Potable – Maybe totally clear during the wintertime months.
  • <20 Tonnes per day – No Water Extraction Licence required.  Off-Peak electricity x 7 hours should be sufficient to backfill the pond.
  • Domestic Electricity supply, 240 volts x 3kw. Within 50 metres (including depth of well).  Sufficient for a single phase downhole pump.
  • Barite – Leak-Sealant:  Totally neutral for pond-life could be used to slow down / stop pond leaking away.
  • Septic Tank:  All domestic soaps and detergents should be Bio Products to prevent Septic Tank Bio-Digest process being arrested.
  • Grey Waters: Flowline West to East across lawn – ‘Capillary Action’ to local soil (not observed). Overflow will need to be monitored.  
  • The first 20 feet of the Well should be cemented in & standing proud to prevent surface contaminates entering the Aquifer/ Sump area.
  • Water Testing:  Non Potable / Agricultural water testing required annually.  (Much cheaper than Potable Water testing).

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OS Map:    Plantation Farm Newmarket  – Suffolk
Brief for the Dowsers:     ‘Locate an Aquifer in Paddock 5.  That can provide > 20 tonnes per day’
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                                      Paddock  5. Well Required.

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Looking Westwards:   Green Flags indicate optimum position for the Water Well to be located.

Brief:    ‘Locate an Aquifer in Paddock 5.  That can provide > 20 tonnes per day’   
Orientation:OS Map:  TL. 64058 – 66418                  Elevation 20 metres
Ave.’ Width of Aquifer:12’
Max’. Depth of Aquifer:160’
Ave’. Resting Levels:Summertime   20’     / Wintertime   10’
Direction of Flow:A’   250°  / WWS.             B’   290°  / WWN.             C’   340°  / NNW.     
Quantity of Waters:A’   13 – 17 Lpm.                B’   09 –  14 Lpm.                C’   07 –  13 Lpm..
‘Summer & Winter’
Potable   / PH Levels:Yes  all Waters Potable        / PH Levels 7.2  
Waters – Provenance:Upstream / Downstream.    K/N.
Ground Formation:Chalk with Overlaying Flint, Clay, Sand & Silt deposits.
Recommended Pump:3 Inch  – 240 Volt Single Phase   – 1 HP / 750 watts.
Waters Recoverable  (60% of the Sustainable Yield)  
00’    – 50’Summertime:         29 Lpm. (40T. per day)      x 60% = 24 Tonnes per day.
Wintertime:            44 Lpm. (60T. per day)      x 60% = 36 Tonnes per day.
50’    – 100’All Year:    100 Lpm.  (140T. per day)   x 60% = 84 Tonnes per day.
100’  – 150’    120 Lpm.  (170T. per day)   x 60% = 100 Tonnes per day.
Optimum Depth  / Lpm.110 Feet    / 120 Lpm.    = 100 Tonnes per day Available.
 

Single Phase Downhole Water Pump

The Pump Rating needs to be checked very carefully, as most water pumps working at 30 metres would produce 30+ gallons of water per minute, this would burn out the pump if a ‘Dry Run Protector’ was not fitted.

Nowadays a One Horse Power Downhole pump would be more than sufficient for this Well, many can return over a 100 tonnes a day if left running for 24 hours. A large surface Header Tank with a Float cut-off switch would be the easiest method to control this downhole pump, or have it running on a basic timer for 3 – 4 hours a day.   

1 HP  = 750 Watts  / Three Amps with the British domestic supply.  Pump above Earth cable not installed, not always needed when immersed in water downhole.

Often the only way to regulate / slow down the pump’s speed is to raise the height of the return line on the surface, ie: run the water hose over the top of a building.

Please Note – Water Extraction License NOT REQUIRED for less than 20 Tonnes per day.

Borehole Location, Construction, Testing and Legal Obligations Location:

It is good practice to site a borehole as far away as possible, and preferably upslope, from any potential sources of pollution, including septic or fuel tanks, soakaways, slurry pits and areas of intensive grazing. A minimum distance of

50 m between a water borehole and any potentially polluting activity is recommended.

Construction:

For boreholes abstracting from the superficial deposits, the top few metres should be cased out (the depth of plain casing depending on the aquifer thickness at the specific site). A borehole abstracting water from a bedrock aquifer should be sealed off through the superficial deposits by installing a length of plain casing to at least 5 m below the upper surface of the bedrock. The casing should be grouted effectively in order to minimise the risk of poor quality surface or shallow groundwater entering the borehole.

Testing:

Any new borehole should be subject to a pumping test to determine the yield and drawdown of the water level. For a borehole designed for a single domestic property, it is recommended that a pumping test of at least 3 hours duration, or at least as long as the anticipated daily pumping period, is carried out, during which both the pumping rate and water level are monitored. For domestic supplies for more than one property, a longer pumping test of at least 6 to 12 hours is more appropriate. For larger supplies the Environment Agency are likely to require a test of several days duration, as well as the monitoring of nearby water sources before, during and after test pumping.

The sustainable yield of a Well:

The sustainable yield of a well is the amount of water that can be pumped from the well continuously over time without causing damage to the well (too much drawdown) or causing the well to go dry.  A pumping test is the only way to get a good approximation of sustainable yield.

There are several approaches to conducting a pumping test.  In one commonly used test, the well is pumped over a period of time while water levels in the well are recorded.  Pumping rates are adjusted as necessary such that water levels in the well stabilize at 50% or less drawdown over the duration of the test.  After a set period of time the pump is turned off, and the water levels are recorded as groundwater flows back into the well during the recovery phase.  The rate at which the water level in the well drops relative to the pumping rate, the amount of drawdown the well displays for a given pumping rate over time, and the recovery rate provide the basis for calculating sustainable yield.

Generally the longer an aquifer test is run, the more reliable the data.  Aquifer tests on large-capacity commercial or public water supply wells commonly span several days from beginning to end.  However, it is usually possible to get a reliable estimate on a modest capacity domestic well in a test spanning 2 to 8 hours. 

Water quality:

It is recommended that a water sample, taken during the final stages of the pumping test, is sent for full analysis to a reputable laboratory. They, or if a potable private supply is envisaged the Environmental Health Officer of the local council, should be able to advise on the range of analyses to be undertaken, which would normally include pathogenic indicator bacteria, iron, manganese and nitrate. An adequate and well-maintained disinfection treatment would be considered advisable for any supply intended for potable use.

Legal requirements:

Currently all sources abstracting 20 m3/d or more require an abstraction licence. A ‘Consent to Investigate Groundwater’ must be obtained prior to a licensable borehole being drilled. This consent permits drilling and pump testing. If a borehole to more than 15 m depth is drilled, there is a statutory requirement (Water Resources Act, 1991) for the driller to supply full information to the Wallingford office of the British Geological Society for inclusion in the National Well Record Archive.

Maximum admissible concentrations and values for parameters in private supplies under the Private Water Supplies Regulations 2009 (for England) and the Private Water Supplies Regulations (Wales) 2010
ParameterConcentration or value
For small domestic supplies <10 m3/day or serving <50 persons                   (i)
pH ≥6.5 and ≤9.5
Electrical conductivity (SEC) @ 20oC (μS/cm) 2500
Turbidity (NTU) 4
Enterococci (number/100 ml) 0
Escherichia coli (E. coli) (number/100 ml) 0

Additional for larger, commercial or public premises supplies
Odour and taste                                                                          Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change
Colour (mg/l Pt/Co) 20
Aluminium (μg/l)                                                                                                       (ii) 200
Ammonium (mg/l) 0.5
Iron (μg/l)                                                                                                                   (ii) 200
Manganese (μg/l)                                                                                                     (iii) 50
Nitrate (as mg/l NO3)                                                                                               (iv) 50
Nitrite (as mg/l NO2)                                                                                                (iv) 0.5
Clostridium perfringens (including spores) (number/100 ml) 0
Coliform bacteria (number/100 ml) 0
Colony counts @ 22°C No abnormal change
Colony counts @ 37°C No abnormal change

Selected other parameters based on risk assessment
Arsenic (μg/l) 10
Benzene (μg/l) 10
Bromate (μg/l) 10
Chloride (mg/l) 250
Chromium (μg/l) 50
Copper (μg/l) 2
Fluoride (mg/l) 1.5
Lead (μg/l) (10 μg/l after 25/12/2013) 25
Nickel (μg/l) 20
Pesticides-individual (μg/l)                                                                                      (v) 0.1
Pesticides-total (μg/l) 0.5
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (μg/l) 0.1
Sodium (mg/l) 200
Sulphate (mg/l) 250
Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride) (μg/l) 3
Total trihalomethanes (μg/l) 100
Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene) (μg/l) 10
mg.  = milligram     (1/1,000 of a Gram)                                                 μg  = microgram     (1/1,000,000 of a Gram)

Notes

(i) supplies to a single dwelling are excluded but may be monitored by the Local Authority at the request of the owner/occupier

(ii) when used as a flocculant or where the water is influenced by surface water

(iii) where the water is influenced by surface water

(iv) where water is disinfected by chlorination

(v)except aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide where the limit is 0.03 μg/l


Oaktree Farm guesthouse is a Georgian building with four stables and six acres of land to support.
Dowsing Anglia were requested to locate a good position for a future borehole close to the property.
The building and surrounding area have no header tanks / gravity feed water tanks and presently rely on the mains water supply.
The Farm’s water well was dug on the East side of the building and the remaining hand pump can be seen in the photo just to the left of the door.    

Yellow Circle indicates the best positon to site a borehole

Average Quantity – WatersSummertime:    50 tonnes per dayWintertime:    80 tonnes per day

Ave: Water Resting LevelsSummertime:    20 – 30 feetWintertime:    10 – 15 feet

Optimum Extraction DepthSummertime:    40 – 50 feetWintertime:    40 – 50 feet

Max: Water Extraction Rate per hour(60% of the Sustainable Yeild)Summertime:    1.2 tonnes per hourWintertime:    2 tonnes per hour

Potable – All year YesPH  LevelsPH. 7.1

Notes & Recommendations:

1. Water Provenance:  These waters appear to be coming from the West direction, slightly higher ground. No contaminants from the land.

2. <20 Tonnes per day – No Water Extraction Licence required.  Mains Water to the Kitchen’s cold water tap must remain online at all time.

3.         Off-Peak electricity not applicable here – Large Water holding tanks not being installed.

4. Domestic Electricity supply, 240 volts x 3kw. Within 50 metres (including depth of well).  Sufficient for a single phase downhole pump.

5. If Septic Tanks are installed  the borehole has to be sited 100 feet away, preferably upstream / higher ground.

6.         All domestic soaps and detergents should be Bio Products to prevent Septic Tank Bio-Digest process being arrested.

7.         The first 20 feet of the Well should be cemented in & standing proud to prevent surface contaminates entering the Aquifer/ Sump area.

8. Water Testing Certificate:  Potable Waters testing required annually.    Domestic Test Kits should be used regularly + recorded.  


The Drilling company could also install a pressure vessel, this would need to be ‘Hard-plumbed & wired’ into the main building and require a concrete hard-standing and water tight room like a garage.  Waters for domestic use need to be three stage filtered down to 25 microns and the whole system to be cleaned / backwashed on a weekly basis. Water softeners, UV lights / Chemical inhibitors may need to be fitted.
Pressure Vessels or Pressure Tanks are mainly used in conjunction with pressure boosting sets. Their ability to hold water at pressure prevents the need for the pump to be switched on constantly during the day for quick, short periods at a time.
For example, if someone were to wash their hands, water would initially come from that stored inside the pressure tank, if the tap was then closed, the pressure vessel would automatically refill from the mains pressure without the need for the pump. The pump would only need to kick in once the pressurised water from the tank has been used ie. if you were to fill a bath or use the shower.

 
‘Yesteryear’s Technology Today’
  Cellar Exposed
Cellar Four metres square

Buried Wellsite – Relocated.

Date & Time:                      30 September 2005  / PM.
Location:              ‘Al Nisr’         (5 Kms. North x Al Jamalh Wellsite)
Orientation:             South x ‘Eagle Mountain’    (18 Kms. NE x Nilam)
Contractor:              ‘Nabors’  – (circa. 1991 AD).  

Brief:-

              Al Nisr’s open topped Cellar was backfilled 14 years ago and the area left unmarked, save for the capped Water-well 400 metres to the South. Present day task was to re-locate the Cellar in preparation for a future workover programme,  but as the GPS system was temporarily down older + more basic technology was called for & utilised.

Using bent welding rods held in old paint tin handles, ’Dowsing’ quickly located the ‘Mud pits’,  then by tracking backwards / working the higher ground, plus using metal spikes to penetrate the surface sand to assess depth / density, the cellar walls were rapidly located.

The dowsing rods picked up dozens of subsurface stray metallic objects before indicating the walls of the cellar. Cheap & easy to use / little training required + ‘A Lot of Good Luck’!!!.

Steve Dawson – Security Advisor.

Domestic Water Meter indicates losing upto 5 tonnes of Water per day / 3.5 litres per minute

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Google Earth Map above aligned Northwards:

Yellow Circle shows an area Dowsed showing signs of a leaking Ninety degree Pipe-Joint.  Single Water meter just 25 metres West of this ‘Leak’. House + Outbuildings Water Pipes laid out in ‘Series / Line ahead’  – No Check Valves installed in whole Lay-out. Only method of locating the leak manually would be ‘Freezing’ the main pipework many times and working back up towards the water meter. This method would give you an approximate area to dig up.   Yellow circled area only indications found for a Leak, plus very accurate responses to the water meter being turned ‘Off & On’. (With all downstream Taps & Toilets isolated).

We had a call out to a large house in Southend where the owners had been warned by the local water board that were over using their domestic water or they potentially had a leak.  The house had been extended many times in the last 30 years by an amateur builder and the plumbing and electrics were incredible.

The first thing was to isolate the house at the Stop-Cock and check all the outside taps & drains to make sure they had ‘dried up’.  We found an extra water line that could not be isolated but luckily this was an external line not entering the property and appeared to be in good order.
On the pavement outside the house  the water meter continued to rotate and when timed it indicated the leak was 3 litres a minute which is well over 4 tonnes per day. That’s a lot of water escaping around the base of your property.
We could now physically prove the leak could only be in one area, definitely not in the house but between the stopcock and the water meter. The strip of long grass where the Yellow Flags were also suggested this was the leak area.

Yes we had dowsed & flagged out the water line’s location and found a spur line running off into the garden but we left dowsing for a ‘Damaged Water Line / Water Leak’ until the very last minute, we were 100% sure the house was isolated and the running water in the drains was surface run-off waters from the hill above.  The Pot in the middle of the Yellow Flags shows where the leak was dowsed / found, the ground was extra wet and a metal stake sank easily to depth at this point plus there was a deep ‘Rat-Hole’ next to the pot.

Lessons Learnt:This was large rambling house & gardens with archaic plumbing everywhere, all of the water lines had to be dowsed / mapped out and the house isolated and proven. All the drains were checked and the source of the running waters located, this took over two hours before the real dowsing started in an linear area of just ten metres (Yellow Flags) above the incoming mains water line,  Oh and don’t put your hand in a Rat-Hole.

Orientation:Location  – OS Map:                      Elevation metres:                                 Yoxford Village Hall  – IP17 3HN           
Local Brief:    Date & Timings:   25.Jan.2017 – AM.            Dowsers Names: Ann & Steve Dawson                    Unit of Measurements: Metric / Imperial.

Flags Colours + Clock Positions:  North   = 12 O/c.  Red   – 1 o/c.Blue   – 2 o/c.Yellow   – 3 o/c.White   – 10 o/c.Green   – 11 o/c.

Direction Water Flow:SSWSWWestSESouth

Width of  Water-Veins:1  Foot2  Feet2  Feet2  Feet1  Foot

Depth of  Water-Veins:8  – 12 feet7  – 12 Feet8  – 13 Feet7  – 15 Feet7  – 14 Feet
Ave: Quantity – Waters:‘Summer & Winter’ 6   / 7   lpm.8   / 12  lpm.   14  / 18   lpm.7   / 15   lpm.   9 /    12 lpm./       lpm.

Potable  / PH Levels:Yes   – 7.1Yes   – 7.1Yes   – 7.1Yes   – 7.1Yes   – 7.1

Waters – Provenance:N/K.N/K.N/K.N/K.N/K.

Von Pohl Reading:5  / 165  / 165  / 165  / 165  / 16  Centre  = 6 / 16

Ave.’ Width of Aquifer:5  FeetMax’. Depth of Aquifer:60 Feet

Ave’. Water Resting Levels:Summertime11 FeetAve’. Water Resting Levels:Wintertime9 Feet

Safe Extraction Depth:Non Potable Waters:     < 30 FeetSafe Extraction Depth:Potable Waters:     > 30 Feet

Maximum Safe Water Extraction:(60% of the Sustainable Yield) Summertime – Tonnes per 24 HoursWintertime – Tonnes per 24 hours
30  Tonnes  – Potable    N/A.     Non Potable40  Tonnes  – Potable    N/A.     Non Potable


The Dando 2000 weighs around 1,500 kgs. and tows easily behind a heavy 4×4. It swings wide on the corners with its wheels set so far back. Nose weight 100+ kgs.

Lot of weight on the rear end – Nose weight 100+ kgs. and no Jockey wheel fitted so a good driver required especially when reversing. This rig’s over 20 years old with its original 13hp diesel twin cylinder engine, very robust and cheap to run.  This model is often sent to Africa by Charities like ‘Village Water’, the whole package plus transporting over there and basic instruction is under £40K. A few dowsers go out there every year to set the local villagers up, water well locations plus stores & equipment required. This is a Charity well worth sponsoring, good long term results and low overheads.

Erecting the Rig: The rig hauls its A’ Frame up using its winch. it can be ready to drill within the hour. The 2000 mean two tonnes pull but with blocks & tackles fitted this engine and frame can haul upto 9 tonnes, sometimes required if the Casing gets stuck downhole.
























Oiling the threads of the Cutter, this will be screwed into the very heavy Jar seen hanging above. Not much headroom inside the A’ Frame so the Casings have to be on the short side.

        
‘Spudding-In’ No Ground Template, the driller carefully positions the Cutter as it’s gently hammered down (raised up & down – the sheer weight of the drill-string does the cutting). The Driller marks the wire every metre and records all the Cuttings on a Report Sheet.

The Cutter soon clogs up and needs clearing into the bucket below. There’s a fork-like tool attached to the rig that pushes the cuttings out.


Emptying the Bailer: It has to be Up-ended to be emptied as the Flapper Valve is effectively a One way valve. If there’s only water in the Bailer then the Flapper valve can be tripped when over a bucket saving all this rigging.




Once the Cuttings become easier the Bailer is installed. This has a Flapper Valve at the bottom so with gentle raising & lowering it soon tops up with cuttings. Water is used as a lube’ and to help with the cuttings. The Temporary Casing often slips down as the drillstring advances, if not a gentle nudge will push it down. The casing comes in 1.25 metres sections as not much headroom within the A’ Frame, the Casing’s job is hold the hole in place, stop it collapsing on itself.


Rotating the Casing: A strong bolt has been pushed through the Drop-Drive Head (Casing Cap) and through the Jar, the Casing will be ‘Slushed’ (Up & down) & rotated regularly to prevent it sticking downhole. That would be a very expensive mistake not to recover the Casing.


Installing Plastic Liner; The bottom section of this Liner is full of slots to let the water in but hold back the soils. Pea-Gravel 4-6mm will surround this lower section to assist filtering away the local soils. Great care taken with this Liner, it’s easily damaged.


The Plastic Liner has been inserted and now the Temporary Casing is recovered to surface. There’s always a chain ‘Dog-Collar’ attached at ground level to prevent the Casing slipping back downhole. When fully recovered only then will the Pea-Gravel and backfill soil be dropped around the Plastic Liner, which is positioned just below ground level to prevent any damage as the rig’s dismantled. The short metal pole welded to the circular plate in the foreground is the De-Watering pole, left in the bucket it can trip the Flapper Valve.
Max (Anglai Pumps) Testing Water Depths: This Tape measure has a sensor on the bottom of it and it bleeps loudly when wet. Often the well will be pumped out at a set rate, so many gallons per minute, and the ‘Restive Levels’ of the waters can be recorded giving the Client a chart Summer & Winter of how much water’s available and speed of flow. Less than 20 cubic metres per day no licence required.

Groundwater level is a term that is used in a relatively loose way, normally referring to the level, either below ground or above ordnance datum, at which soil or rock is saturated. This is also referred to as the water table and represents the top of the saturated zone. Above the water table lies the unsaturated zone.

Formal terminology

A more formal term is rest water level (RWL) which implies the water level in a borehole that has not been recently pumped, nor affected by nearby pumping. A pumped water level (PWL) refers to a water level measured while the borehole is pumped. Strictly speaking the water table refers only to unconfined aquifers; aquifers in which water is free to drain vertically from the ground surface to the aquifer. In an unconfined aquifer the groundwater may be in hydraulic continuity with surface water, in which case the surface water can be considered to be an outcrop of groundwater. However levels in an aquifer may be lower than levels in a river, in which case water may be lost from the river to the aquifer, or higher, in which case the river will gain water from the aquifer. Often rivers will gain during summer and lose water in winter.

Confined aquifers

Confined aquifers occur when a layer of impermeable rock or soil overlies an aquifer that is fully saturated, allowing the water within the aquifer to be pressurised. The groundwater level in a confined aquifer is more properly described as a potentiometric surface, and represents the theoretical level to which water would rise if the confining layer were not present. If there are multiple aquifers present in a vertical sequence there may be several distinct water levels, and where there is a significant vertical flow component present in an aquifer the potentiometric surface may vary with depth. A borehole drilled specifically to measure water level is an observation borehole. The level of water in an observation borehole will be a composite of all aquifers that are penetrated by the borehole. If it is drilled to measure water in a particular horizon and other horizons are cased off, it is called a piezometer. Piezometric surface is often used synonymously for potentiometric surface.

Artesian groundwater

The term artesian is used to describe areas where the piezometric head in a confined aquifer is above the ground surface. In these areas a borehole that penetrates the confined aquifer will flow naturally. Semi-artesian is occasionally used to describe cases where a borehole penetrates a confined aquifer, but the water isn’t under enough pressure to overflow at the surface, but artesian may also used in this case.

Perched watertable

Perched water tables occur when there are lenses of impermeable material in a rock that is otherwise permeable. These allow small localised water tables to develop over the lenses, which can overlay a regional water table in the surrounding rock mass.

Water strike

When drilling a borehole water strike may be recorded. This is the level at which water is first encountered. Comparisons of water strike to rest water level can be used to identify perched water table (strike > level) or confined conditions (strike < level).

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‘Knowledge Dispels Fear’ – RAF Brize Norton All Arms Military Parachute School.

After 30+ years in the Oil Patch worldwide I’m fed up of listening to the Loony Lefties, Hippies & Fake-News Readers telling the public about the dangers of Fracking when most of them haven’t done a day’s work in the Oil Industry and have absolutely zero knowledge of Oil & Gas extraction methods.

Oil companies have been successfully Fracking for many years and has even making the good old USA completely self-sufficient nowadays. Yes there were a few cowboy incidents in the first few years with a few water courses contaminated but tighter regulations & licencing laws soon ended that. But this is not the real problem of Fracking.

Fracking at below 6,000 feet, a mile below the surface (most times double that depth), there is very little chance of Communication, cross contam’ with potable water sources which are drawn from the upper levels. Earth tremors / quakes like seen in Blackpool (very shallow Fracking exercise), not likely either in fact hardly any interaction at all.

Pressures of 9,000psi are normal during the pressurisation phase requiring a massive seal / plug at the top of the well. During the production life of the well the operating pressures will be a lot lower than this so it’s very unlikely for any leaks from the well to ambient.

But the problems come about with the Flaring off, burning off the waste products from the gas below. Everybody who’s been offshore will tell you about H2s and its killing modes, but very few will understand the by-product of burning H2s is SO2 now we have a real killer to deal with.

H2s is monitored in parts per millions and is relatively easy to detect and it will defuse back to earth fairly rapidly.

SO2 is so deadly it’s measured in parts per billion, it’s well over 300 times more deadly than H2s and does not defuse back to the earth easily but is highly soluble in surface waters causing major long term problems. It’s twice as heavy as air and rolls in huge zeppelin-like clouds that can roll with the wind (uphill as well) for miles.

The Japanese first detected this problem about ten years ago when the tourists were stopped from visiting a live volcano, so had to remain in the carpark below about three miles away, the SO2 rolled into the carpark and killed four of them in seconds, this was when readings had to be changed.

So getting the gas out of the ground is not a problem and is a long term solution to our power shortage, but if flared off too near towns, villages, farms & livestock then it’s deadly.

One of my last HSE projects in Kurdistan was to source why a mountain village high above the Canadian oil terminal was being ‘gassed’ every night. H2s monitors everywhere nothing registered, had to import an SO2 monitor from Norway and whow the reading were through the roof.

Summary:

Fracking is an excellent way of getting this fuel but sensible control measures must be in place especially when Flaring-Off, hopefully out to sea. Plus the safe disposal of the millions of litres of waters returning to surface post pressurisation, this should all have been organised long before the drillers turned up.

Below is a short Brief on how Fracking works:

Arguments Against Fracking

• May Trigger Earthquakes locally

• Injection Well may create an industrial Landscape

• May contaminate Drinking Water Supplies

• May create environmentally hazardous waste waters

• Extra Haulage Road traffic

• Lowering of local property prices.

Arguments For Fracking

• Fracking increases the supply of natural gas and makes  

      gas heating more affordable

• Some argue that it is more economical than Re-newable

      energies – Especially Offshore Wind farms

• It reduces the West’s reliance on Middle East Oil

• Fracking can target smaller area not feasible for larger

      Rigs and other Extraction Methods

• Fracking gives smalls Farms an extra income

• The Risks to the Environment can be Contained /

      Controlled.

Bridge Street,Downham Market  – Norfolk.

There’s definitely a Water Energy Line running westwards from the south side of Saint Edmunds Church, south of Morrisons (large White Building) and running alongside Bridge street through the rear of the properties.   Summer Flowrate 5 tonnes per hour 27 feet below. Winter Flowrate 8 tonnes per hour 23 feet below, heading to the River Great Ouse.

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